Welcome to the exciting world of electronics! Today, we’ll embark on a journey to explore the fascinating realm of 10 basic electronic components that form the building blocks of countless devices. From resistors that control the flow of electric current to capacitors that store and release energy, each component has its unique role in shaping the technological wonders we encounter every day. So, whether you’re a curious beginner or a seasoned enthusiast, fasten your seatbelts as we dive into the mesmerizing world of electronic components and unravel their secrets together!
The physical component with resistive properties used in electrical and electronic technology is called a resistor, represented by the letter R.
Various types of resistors are widely used in electronic equipment. According to statistics, in general electronic products, resistors account for about 40% of the total number of components. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the basic characteristics of various resistors and to use resistors correctly. They are used as voltage dividers, current shunts, current limiting resistors, circuit loads, attenuation components in circuits, RC type loop components, etc.
A capacitor is a component consisting of two metal plates with a dielectric sandwiched between them, and is represented by the letter C.
Capacitor is one of the components widely used in electronic equipment. It has the ability to block DC and separate various frequencies. It is widely used in DC blocking, coupling, bypass, filtering, decoupling, phase shifting, resonant circuit tuning, and waveform transformation ( Differential, integral), energy conversion, time constant setting in control circuits, etc.
A general inductor is made of enameled wire, yarn-covered wire or silver-plated copper wire wound around an insulating tube for a certain number of turns (N), so it is also called an inductor coil. The basic unit of inductance is Henry, represented by the letter “H”.
Inductors can be used for tuning, filtering, blocking, notching, high-frequency compensation, impedance matching, delay lines, etc.
A relay is an automatic switch that uses low voltage and small current to control high voltage and large current. It plays the roles of automatic operation, automatic adjustment, and safety protection in the circuit. Commonly used relays mainly include electromagnetic relays, dry reed relays, magnetic latching reed relays and solid state relays. Among them, electromagnetic relays are the most commonly used type and use electromagnetic force to switch contacts. The symbol of electromagnetic relay in the circuit is “K” or “KA”.
5. Semiconductor diode
A semiconductor diode is composed of a PN junction welded to two electrode leads and a shell package. The unidirectional conductive characteristics of the diode can be expressed by the volt-ampere characteristic curve. There are many types of semiconductor diodes. According to materials, they are divided into germanium diodes, silicon diodes and gallium arsenide diodes. According to structures, they are divided into point contact diodes and surface contact diodes. According to working principles, they are divided into tunnel diodes, avalanche diodes, varactor diodes, etc.; according to their uses, they are divided into detection diodes, rectifier diodes, switching diodes, etc.
Transistor, also known as semiconductor triode, referred to as triode or transistor, has three external electrodes (lead-out pins), some of which have 4 pins, one of which is used for grounding and has nothing to do with the functions of the other three poles. The basic function of a triode is to amplify or switch electrical signals. It is widely used in electronic circuits and is one of the core components of electronic equipment.
7. Field effect transistor
When an electric field is applied in the vertical direction of the semiconductor surface, electrons and holes move under the action of the surface electric field, and carriers are redistributed on the semiconductor surface. Therefore, the conductivity of the semiconductor surface is changed by the electric field, that is, changing the magnitude and direction of the applied voltage can control the concentration and type of carriers in the semiconductor surface layer, or control the width of the PN junction space charge region. This phenomenon is called the field effect of the semiconductor.
The work of field effect transistors is based on the field effect on the semiconductor surface.
8. Electroacoustic devices
Electroacoustic devices are transducer elements that convert electrical signals into sound signals or convert sound signals into electrical signals. Commonly used electroacoustic devices in electronic circuits include speakers, microphones, headphones and buzzers.
Speakers are used to convert electrical energy (electrical signals) into sound energy (audio signals) and radiate them. The speaker’s written symbol in the circuit is “B” or “BL”.
A microphone is an acoustic-to-electrical conversion device that can convert sound signals into electrical signals. It acts in the opposite direction to the speaker. The text symbol of the microphone is “B” or “BM”.
Earphones and buzzers are also electro-acoustic transducer devices that convert electrical signals into acoustic signals.
9. Protection components
Protection components used in electronic equipment include fuse resistors, ordinary fuses, thermal fuses and resettable fuses, etc. The protective element is generally connected in series in the circuit. When abnormal phenomena such as overcurrent, overvoltage or overheating occur in the circuit, it will immediately fuse to protect and prevent further expansion of the fault.
10. Quartz crystal resonator
Quartz crystals are generally used in electronic circuits to generate stable oscillation frequencies and as crystal filters. Quartz crystal can be used as a separate component, or it can be used together with semiconductor devices and resistor-capacitor components to form a quartz crystal oscillator. A quartz crystal oscillator is an anisotropic crystal. Thin slices called wafers are cut from a crystal at a certain azimuth angle (can be square, rectangular or circular, etc.), and then coated on the two corresponding surfaces of the wafer. The silver layer and a pair of metal plates are installed to form a quartz crystal oscillator. The text symbol of quartz crystal resonator is B or BC.
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The resistor is a passive electrical component that creates resistance in the flow of electric current.
A capacitor is an electronic device that stores electrical energy in an electric field by accumulating electric charges on two closely spaced surfaces that are insulated from each other. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke, or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it. An inductor typically consists of an insulated wire wound into a coil.